Major General William Shafter, the much-maligned commander of the U. S. Army’s Fifth Corps. He received the nickname “Fallback Shafter” for contemplating a withdrawal of his forces after they had captured San Juan Heights.
The guns of Captain George S. Grimes’ artillery battery opened the Battle of San Juan Heights on the morning of July 1 by firing on Spanish positions from El Pozo. This drawing, by Frederic Remington, depicts Grimes’ battery racing up El Pozo hill.
The Rough Riders advanced through the San Juan jungle between El Pozo and San Juan Heights.
William “Buckey” O’Neill, captain of the Rough Riders’ Troop A, shot dead moments after proclaiming, “The Spanish bullet isn’t made that will kill me.”
Kettle Hill received its name from large sugar-refining kettles on the hill’s summit. As the Rough Riders and other elements of the Cavalry Division charged the structures at the top, Theodore Roosevelt killed a Spaniard with a Colt revolver that had been salvaged from the sunken battleship Maine. Sketch of the famous kettles by Howard Chandler Christy.
San Juan blockhouse, a fortified hacienda, was stormed by white and black soldiers of the First Division (infantry) under Brigadier General Jacob Kent.
San Juan Hill was actually a long ridge. The San Juan blockhouse is visible at the top of the ridge at center. Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, along with Buffalo Soldiers and white regulars, charged a fortified house out of view to the right.
The Rough Riders charged around the north end of a shallow lake between Kettle and San Juan hills (some splashed through it). The lake is visible in this view taken from the top of San Juan Hill and looking toward Kettle Hill (note the structures visible on top of Kettle Hill).
The entrenchments dug on top of San Juan Hill by the Rough Riders after the victory of July 1 were dubbed Fort Roosevelt. This map of Fort Roosevelt was drawn by First Lieutenant John H. Parker, who commanded a Gatling gun battery that was critical to the success of the U. S. assault on San Juan Heights.
During one of the truces (probably July 3), Roosevelt and his Rough Riders posed for a photograph on top of San Juan Hill with members of the Third and Tenth U. S. Cavalries, with whom they shared the American line.